ECAT Validated by Swedish Scientists
A number of physicists from Bologna University, Italy, Uppsala University, Sweden and Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden has verified the exothermal process of the ECAT (The Rossi Effect).
The goal was to perform an independent test in a controlled environment and to use high precision measurement equipment. Conclusion:
“The results obtained indicate that energy was produced in decidedly higher quantities than what may be gained from any conventional source.”
The entire report can be found on the page 3rd-Party-Report-shows-Anomalous-Heat-Production-the-Rossi-Effect.
Here follows a digestion of the content giving the essence of the report.
Summary of The Independent Third Party Report on the ECAT HT
Three different ECAT HT Tests was conducted
- November 2012 ECAT HT Test
- December 2012 ECAT HT Test
- March 2013 ECAT HT2 Test
November 2012 ECAT HT Test
“…experiment the device was destroyed in the course of the experimental run, when the steel cylinder containing the active charge overheated and melted. The partial data gathered before the failure, however, yielded interesting results which warranted further in-depth investigation in future tests. Although the run was not successful as far as obtaining complete data is concerned, it was fruitful in that it demonstrated a huge production of excess heat, which however could not be quantified. The device used had similar, but not identical, features to those of the E-Cat HT used in the December and March runs.”
Noticeable at this test was that temperatures reached was so high at the outer surface, (>800 C), that one could visually see local power differences and hence see more and less active areas of the charge within the reactor, distinctly from the generated power from the resistors.
Figure 1. (Figs. 1-2)
December 2012 ECAT HT Test
This test was performed at a much lower temperature than the November test to remove the risk of reactor runaway. A detailed data analysis was performed calculating heat losses by radiation and convection separately. The heat loss by conduction was assumed to be zero.
Radiated power was found to be, 1568 W and the convected power was found to be 466 W.
At the same time the average input power was, 360 W leading to a COP of 5.6. After error estimation the conclusion was, COP=5.6 ± 0.8.
Remarks on the test
“The device subject to testing was powered by 360 W for a total of 96 hours, and produced in all 2034 W thermal. This value was reached by calculating the power transferred by the E-Cat HT to the environment by convection and power irradiated by the device. The resultant values of generated power density (7093 W/kg) and thermal energy density (6,81 · 10^5 Wh/kg) allow us to place the E-Cat HT above conventional power sources.”
“Lastly, it should be noted that the device was deliberately shut down after 96 hours of operation. Therefore, from this standpoint as well, the energy obtained is to be considered a lower limit of the total energy which might be obtained over a longer runtime.”
Comparison was made with a standard Ragone plot where, especially, the energy density was off the charts and the conclusion was made that the Rossi Effect can not be a conventional energy source.
March 2013 ECAT HT2 Test
To this test a new design of the ECAT HT was made, which they refer to as ECAT HT2. Measurements was this time also done of the same reactor without the charge inside (now referred to as a ”dummy”) to compare it with actual measured data and not only to data performed by calculations. This enabled them to find out exactly how much input power required to reach the same temperatures as with the charge.
When COP was calculated in this test they arrived at COP= 2.6 ± 0.5 but this was later revised from the dummy test to COP = 2.9 ± 0.3, concluding that the output power was underestimated by >10%.
Remarks on the test
“An interesting aspect of the E-Cat HT2 is certainly its capacity to operate in self-sustaining mode. The values of temperature and production of energy which were obtained are the result of averages not merely gained through data capture performed at different times; they are also relevant to the resistor coils’ ON/OFF cycle itself. By plotting the average temperature vs time for a few minutes of test (Plot 3) one can clearly see how it varies between a maximum and a minimum value with a fixed periodicity.”
“Finally, the complete ON/OFF cycle of the E-Cat HT2, as seen in Plot 3, may be compared with the typical heating-cooling cycle of a resistor, as displayed in Plot 6.”
“What appears obvious here is that the priming mechanism pertaining to some sort of reaction inside the device speeds up the rise in temperature, and keeps the temperatures higher during the cooling phase.”
“The results obtained indicate that energy was produced in decidedly higher quantities than what may be gained from any conventional source. In the March test, about 62 net kWh were produced, with a consumption of about 33 kWh, a power density of about 5.3 · 10^5 W/kg, and a density of thermal energy of about 6.1 · 10^7 Wh/kg. In the December test, about 160 net kWh were produced, with a consumption of 35 kWh, a power density of about 7 · 10^3 W/kg and a thermal energy density of about 6.8 · 10^5 Wh/kg. The difference in results between the two tests may be seen in the overestimation of the weight of the charge in the first test (which was comprehensive of the weight of the two metal caps sealing the cylinder), and in the manufacturer’s choice of keeping temperatures under control in the second experiment to enhance the stability of the operating cycle. In any event, the results obtained place both devices several orders of magnitude outside the bounds of the Ragone plot region for chemical sources.
Even from the standpoint of a “blind” evaluation of volumetric energy density, if we consider the whole volume of the reactor core and the most conservative figures on energy production, we still get a value of (7.93 ± 0.8) 10^2 MJ/Liter that is one order of magnitude higher than any conventional source.
Lastly, it must be remarked that both tests were terminated by a deliberate shutdown of the reactor, not by fuel exhaustion; thus, the energy densities that were measured should be considered as lower limits of real values.”
- Thermal Instrument: Optris PI 160 Thermal Imager
- Electrical Instrument: PCE-830 Power and Harmonics Analyzer
Note: It measures TrueRMS so it will measure correct power input independent of the waveform of the electric input.
Note on ELFORSK
ELFORSK contributed to the expenses of the Swedish research group. Elforsk AB, which began operations in 1993, is owned by the Svensk Energi and the Svenska Kraftnät. Svenska Kraftnät (Swedish national grid) is a state-owned public utility that has many different areas of work. One of Svenska Kraftnät’s important tasks is to transmit electricity from the major power stations to regional electrical grids, via the national electrical grid.
ELFORSK’s overall aim is to rationalize the industry-wide research and development. The business is organized into six program areas Hydro, Electricity and Heat Generation, Nuclear Power, Transmission and Distribution, Use, and Strategies and Systems.
The contribution from ELFORSK to the Swedish group for participating in the experiments is just a small part of a bigger goal set up by the organization. Read PDF here.
Page 51. ELFORSK project goal:
- Supporting scientific experiments that analyze the energy catalyzer, E-Cat, delivers the heating effect that has been reported in various demonstrations
- Support the effort to determine the process that can cause the heating effect and what different parameters influences the effect. Analyze possible risks or other adverse effects
- Analyze the importance of the process (if it works) for future electricity and heat production
Page 53. Budget ECAT 2012 200 kkr, 2013-2015 2000 kkr/year.
In addition, also stated in the validation report, the next step will be to perform a six month test of the ECAT HT.
Note on Authors
Prof. Giuseppe Levi
Prof. Hanno Essén
- Associate professor and theoretical physicist at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm
- Author profile in Google Scholar
- Publications on arXiv
Prof. Roland Pettersson
Prof. Torbjörn Hartman
Prof. Bo Höistad
- Professor at Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics, Uppsala University
- Publications on arXiv
Prof. Lars Tegnér
- Professor at Department of Engineering Sciences, Division of Electricity
- Physical chemist and former development director at the Swedish Energy Agency