The Rossi Effect
Until the inventor Andrea Rossi discovered the Rossi Effect there were basically only two categories of LENR studied:
- Palladium – Deuterium(the original Cold Fusion process)
- Nickel – Hydrogen
The Rossi Effect is a completely new discovery in the field of LENR technology and raises the available power density of LENR processes several orders of magnitude to at least 10 kW/kg. With Power Densities this high most conventional Energy Applications have the potential of being replaced with an ECAT energy source.
The Rossi Effect is based on a LENR process including Hydrogen and Lithium where Nickel is merely used as a catalyst and is not consumed in the process (some Nickel – Hydrogen reactions occur but the major part of the Nickel is not consumed and can be recycled). The Hydrogen – Lithium reaction is highly exothermic;
- Li7 + H1 → Be8 → 2He4 + 17.3 MeV,
where the 17.3 MeV (=2.8*10-12J) is released as heat. This is equivalent to an Energy Density (Specific Energy) of 209 million MJ/kg or 58 million kWh/kg or 5 million times the Energy Density of Oil.
ECAT uses Lithium Aluminium Hydride (LiAlH4) as fuel for utilizing the Rossi Effect. The benefit of Lithium Aluminium Hydrideas a Fuel Source is that it is a solid and therefore much easier to handle than ordinary Hydrogen Gas. Leonardo Corporation received a US patent for this ECAT process on the 25 Aug 2015, see ECAT patents.
When heated Lithium Aluminium Hydride decomposes in a three-steps:
- 3 LiAlH4 → Li3AlH6 + 2 Al + 3 H2 (R1)
- 2 Li3AlH6 → 6 LiH + 2 Al + 3 H2 (R2)
- 2 LiH + 2 Al → 2 LiAl + H2 (R3)
(R1) is usually initiated by the melting of Lithium Aluminium Hydride in the temperature range 150–170 °C, immediately followed by decomposition into solid Li3AlH6, although (R1) is known to proceed below the melting point of LiAlH4 as well. At about 200 °C, Li3AlH6 decomposes into LiH (R2) and Al which subsequently convert into LiAl above 400 °C (R3). Reaction (R1) is effectively irreversible. (R3) is reversible with an equilibrium pressure of about 0.25 bar at 500 °C. (R1) and (R2) can also occur at room temperature with suitable catalysts. When Nickel is added as a catalyst Lithium and Hydrogen will start to diffuse into the Nickel Lattice after the decomposition of the Lithium Aluminium Hydride and at high enough temperature, 600 – 1200 °C, the Rossi Effect will kick in and convert Lithium and Hydrogen into Helium under the release of vast amounts of energy.
Especially beneficial is that gamma radiation is naturally absent in the Rossi Effect because the energy is only released as kinetic energy through thermal Helium nuclei which later thermalize the Nickel Lattice and the inner walls of the ECAT reactor core, under impact, turning kinetic energy into thermal energy. This makes the Rossi Effect ideal for utilizing nuclear sized energy in the complete absence of both radioactive materials and radiation.